The Three Organs/Branches of Government of India

The government of India is known as the Union Government or the Central Government. In order to carry out the functioning of the government the constitution provides three distinct branches namely; are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary. They constitute the entire governance of India. The Constitution of India mentions the separation of powers between these three organs. Each organ has separate and independent powers with different roles and responsibilities assigned to each department for the proper functioning of the government.

The three branches of the government are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary.

Executive Branch

The Executive consists of the President, Vice-President and Cabinet Ministers. This branch is led by the President who is the head of the state. It, however, acts in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister who is the head of the government. The executive is responsible for executing laws and taking care of day to day administration and functioning of the state bureaucracy. The executive is also responsible for the formulation and execution of government policies. It also has the power to dissolve and summon Parliament, call for new elections, dismiss the government of states and territories and declare an emergency in the state.

The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces and appoints the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers and governors of states and union territories.

Legislative Branch

The Legislative is the policy-making body of the country. It makes policies, amends and replaces old laws. This branch of the government is also called as the Parliament and includes the two houses called the Lok Sabha (House of People), also known as the lower house and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), known as the upper house. Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected while the Rajya Sabha members are indirectly elected and nominated. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are members of the Parliament or are elected within six months of assuming their office.

The President is the head of the legislative branch and has special powers granted by the Constitution. The President has the power to convene Parliament, to summon the Parliament to meet, send the message to either house on any pending bill, decide on bills to be introduced in the Parliament and give final approval to bills. Besides these powers, the Legislative branch also has the power to approve and remove members of the Council of Ministers, amend Constitution when necessary, regulate state and union territory boundaries and approve central government finances.

The Legislative branch enjoys supremacy but not complete sovereignty. Its laws are subject to judicial review by the judiciary of the Supreme Court of India.

Judiciary Branch

The judicial branch deals with the administration of justice. It is the guardian of the Constitution and the final judicial authority. The judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court of India and consists of 24 High Courts and many district-level civil, criminal and family courts. The Court has the power to resolve disputes between the Executive and the Legislative as well as other public related matters or conflicts. It resolves disputes between the Government of India and one or more states as well as between two or more states. It also functions as an advisory referred to it by the President and has discretionary powers on any matter from any court, except the armed services. It also acts as a court of record and supervises all the high courts.

External links:

Indianetzone – Divisions in Indian Administration, Government of India

Maps of India – Government of India

GKToday – Three Branches of Government in India

Academia – Three Organs of Government

Last Updated: Feb 02, 2019


The Three Organs/Branches of Government of India

  1. The ___________ branch has the power to approve and remove members of the Council of Ministers.
    a) Executive
    b) Legislative
    c) Judiciary
  2. Who appoints the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers and governors of states and union territories?
  3. Which branch is responsible for making policies for the country?
  4. What does the judicial branch do?
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